Isaiah 14:20
...you have destroyed your land and killed your people.
Job 17:12
These men *change night into day*; they say, 'The light is near in the face of darkness.'
Isaiah 5:20
Woe unto them who call evil good, and good evil; *who put darkness for light, and light for darkness*; who put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!
Jude 1:13
Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; *wandering stars, for whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever*.
Zephaniah 3:3
Her princes in the midst of her are roaring lions; her judges are *evening wolves*, that leave nothing for the morning.
Babylonian Talmud 11a
According to Syrian custom: "Our Rabbis taught, a year may be intercalated on three grounds: on account of the premature state of the grain crops (barley); or that of the fruit-trees; or on account of the lateness of the Tekufah."
Isaiah 59:9
Therefore is judgment far from us, neither doth justice overtake us: we wait for light *but behold obscurity for brightness*, we walk in darkness.
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  • Isaiah 14:20
  • Job 17:12
  • Isaiah 5:20
  • Jude 1:13
  • Zephaniah 3:3
  • Babylonian Talmud 11a
  • Isaiah 59:9

Prophecy In Pictures. While you were sleeping...

"But if the watchman see the sword come, and blow not the trumpet, and the people be not warned; if the sword come, and take any person from among them, he is taken away in his iniquity; but his blood will I require at the watchman's hand." - Ezekiel 33:6

Having eyes to see they do not perceive. Things said that ought not be...

  • Sabbath Observance
    “The Jews have always kept the right Sabbath. The Jews have never lost the Sabbath. The seven day 'week' has never changed."
  • The Antichrist
    "The spirit of Antichrist...lawlessness, was already at work in Paul's day and as such, Antichrist is not a man."
  • Creation Origins
    "Creation began in darkness and that is why the 'Hebrew day' begins in the evening. I came from darkness in my mother's womb."
  • The Father
    "The son of god is actually the father in the flesh."
  • The Word of God
    "The bible is the word of god. The son is the word of god. The torah of Moses is the word of god."
  • The Messiah
    "The Messiah is the Alpha & Omega...The Aleph Tav!"
  • Judah, The Lawgiver
    "The torah was given to Judah so we need to follow the Jews."

We are basically starting from scratch and we could use your help.

Timekeeping Table

  • This section is for the purpose of simplification of timekeeping terms. etymology (study of the origin of words) information may be supplied when needed. Genesis 1 and earlier testimony is the basis for the list with etymology information from www.etymonline.com Some timekeeping terms which came into use later are often problematic. They have an orange dot beneath them.
    Hebrew (Owr) #216 - light as diffused in nature, light of day, illumination
    Hebrew (Choshek) #2822 - darkness, obscurity, distress, chaos, dread, terror, symbolic of judgment, mourning, perplexity, ignorance, evil, sin,
    Hebrew (Yom) #3117 - day, opposed to night, working-day

    It is worth noting that Yom comes from the unused Hebrew root (Ym) meaning heat, warm, warmth, not cool.

    "And first there goes forth the *great luminary, named the Sun*, and his circumference is like the circumference of the heaven, and he is quite filled with *illuminating and heating fire*. - Enoch 72:4
    Hebrew (Layel) #3915 - a twist away of the light, adversity, night as opposed to day
    Hebrew (Boqer) #1242 - dawn, day, daybreak, coming of sunrise, beginning of day, as opposed to evening (erev)
    Hebrew (Erev) #6153 - sunset, twilight, dusk, toward night The English word twilight means a "twixing, twisting or turning away from"...light, warmth or brightness, of course.

    Note: Light clearly existed prior to darkness in order for this "turning away", this "evening" denoting two even parts, to be able to occur.
    Hebrew (Shenah) #8141 - year. Shenah comes from the root Hebrew root (Shanah) #8138 meaning repeat, do over, double, fold, do so again, or do a second time.

    Note: If whatever year you are keeping does not always repeat, do over, double, fold, do so again, or do a second time it is because you are not keeping a year at all.
    From the Latin (Kalendae) - Roman celebration of the "new moon". It is from the Latin word calare "to announce solemnly, call out," as the priests did in proclaiming the "new moon" that marked the Day of Calends.
    From the words - wucu, wice (English), wikon (Proto-Germanic), vica (Norse), wike (Old Frisian), weke (Middle Dutch), wecha (Old High German), woche (German), wican (Old English), meaning a turning away from, yield or give away, to bend or twist. The Gothic derivative wikon carries the connotation "in the course of," and the Old Norse vika that of a "sea-mile" and a "change of oar". See Jude 1:13 for details!

    Note: Weeks are lunar timekeeping mechanisms, the perceived division of seven days in between two 'new moons'. This of course, exists in the imagination of those who keep them as the moon is not new, nor are heads and beginnings of days on earth marked by it. Proponents of all brands of Judaism keep lunar weeks.

    Gregorian Judaism has hoodwinked people into thinking that the Gregorian Calendar is solar only, but all they have done is increase the number of 'weeks' in between two 'new moons' to tens of thousands instead of four.

    All 'week' keepers will be gathered under one dark head, shortly.
    From the words monao (Old English), menoth (Proto-Germanic), monath (Old Frisian), manet (Middle Dutch), maand (Dutch), manod (Old High German), monat (German), manaor (Old Norse), menoþs (Gothic). A month is a unit of time, *used with calendars*. The words month and moon are cognates. While there are different types of months it is simply described as one compete lunation cycle as it pertains to faulty timekeeping.

    Note: After hundreds and even thousands of years keeping "calendars" and "new moons", the word month has extended far beyond its solely lunar boundary. So much so that virtually all modern dictionaries and lexical aids use the term to define solar and even stellar activity, even erroneously and egregiously.
    Sexagesimal (Base 60) is a numeral system with sixty as its base. It originated with the ancient Sumerians in the 3rd millennium BC, was passed down to the ancient Babylonians, and is still used - in a modified form - for measuring time, angles, and geographic coordinates.

    Note: The terms hours (as it pertains to minutes and seconds), minutes and seconds are from the Babylonian Base60 calendar mechanism.
    "Our 24-hour day comes from the ancient Egyptians who divided day-time into ten hours they measured with devices such as shadow clocks, and added a twilight hour at the beginning and another one at the end of the day-time." - Sydney Observatory

    Note: The term "day cycle" is a result of trying to combine what Father separated, mixing the separate domains of light and darkness as well as confusing the separate roles and courses of the luminaries in the heavens.
  • Superstition, Customs & Practice Pertaining to "The Day of Saturn" (BCE)
    “Either I blamed the birds, or words of bad omen; or that the sacred day of Saturn held one back.” - Albius Tibillus
    "You may begin on *the day less fit for business*, whereon returns the seventh day feast that *the Syrian of Palestine* observe." - Publius Ovidius Naso
    “Now have men turned the gods to profit and Jupiter is fooled by their gold; to profit have they turned the oft-scanned constellations of the slanting zodiac, the blessed star of Jove, the greedy star of Mars, the sign of Saturn *that brings woe to one and all*, the purport of [the constellation of] the Fish and the fierce constellation of the Lion and [that of] Capricorn, bathed in the waters of the West.” - Sextus Propertius
  • Superstition, Customs & Practice Pertaining to "The Day of Saturn". Here are some references to Jewish observance of "The Day of Saturn", fulfillment of prophecy...of course.
    "They were pleased to have a rest on the seventh day, because it brought a release from work. Some hold it to be an honor to Saturn, or perhaps the Idaeans gave them this part of their religion, who the Idaeansi, as we have said before, were expelled together with Saturn, and who, as we have been informed, were the founders of this [Jewish] nation; or else it was because the star [Saturn] moves in the highest sphere, and of the seven planets exerts the principal part of that energy whereby mankind are governed; and indeed most of the heavenly bodies exert their power and fulfill their courses according to the number seven." - Publius Cornelius Tacitus
    "The divine Augustus Vespasian attacked the Jews on the day of Saturn, on which it is forbidden for them to do anything serious, and prevailed.” - Sextus Julius Frontinus
    "[Peter] inferred thus: ‘Neither worship as the Jews...[for] if the moon is not visible, they do not hold the Sabbath, *which is called the first*; nor do they hold the new moon, nor the feast of Unleavened Bread, nor the Feast, nor the Great Day’ ” - Clement of Alexandria
    “This officer...conquered in battle Antigonus, who had put to death the Roman guards that were with him, and reduced him by siege when he took refuge in Jerusalem. The Jews, indeed, had done much injury to the Romans, for the race is very bitter when aroused to anger, but they suffered far more themselves. The first of them to be captured were those who were fighting for the precinct of their god, and then the rest on the day even then called the day of Saturn. And so excessive were they in their devotion to religion that the first set of prisoners, those who had been captured along with the temple, obtained leave from Sosius, when the day of Saturn came round again, and went up into the temple and there performed all the customary rites, together with the rest of the people.” - Cassius Dio
    “They are distinguished from the rest of mankind in practically every detail of life and especially by the fact that they do not honor any of the usual gods, but show extreme reverence for one particular divinity. They never had any statue of him even in Jerusalem itself, but believing him to be unnamable and invisible, they worship him in the most extravagant fashion on earth. They built to him a temple that was extremely large and beautiful except in so far as it was open and roofless, and likewise dedicated to him the day called the day of Saturn, on which, among many other most peculiar observances, they undertake no serious occupation.” - Cassius Dio
    “If they [the Jews] had continued defending it [the temple] on all days alike, he could not have got possession of it. As it was, they made an exception of what are called the days of Saturn, and by doing no work at all on those days, afforded the Romans an opportunity in this interval to batter down the wall. The latter, on learning of this superstitious awe of theirs, made no serious attempts the rest of the time, but on those days, when they came around in succession, assaulted most vigorously. Thus the defenders were captured on the day of Saturn without making any defense, and all the wealth was plundered. The kingdom was given to Hyrcanus, and Aristobulus was carried away.” - Cassius Dio
    “Had it not been for our practice, from the days of our forefathers, to rest on the seventh day, this bank [thrown up by Pompey] could never have been perfected, by reason of the opposition the Jews would have made; for though our law gives us leave then to defend ourselves against those that begin to fight us and assault us, yet does it not permit us to meddle with our enemies while they do anything else. Which thing when the Romans understood, on those days which we call Sabbaths they threw nothing at the Jews, nor came to any pitched battle with them but raised up their earthen banks, and brought their engines into such forwardness, that they might do execution the next day....The city was taken on the third month, on the day of the fast, upon the hundred and seventy-ninth Olympiad, when Caius Antonius and Marcus Tullius Cicero were consuls.” - Flavius Josephus
    “And if you do observe the custom of the Sabbath days, you will easily be taken, as were your forefathers by Pompey (on the Day of Saturn), who was the busiest in his siege on those days on which the besieged rested.” - Herod Agrippa according to Flavius Josephus
    “Nor had the Romans succeeded in their endeavors, had not Pompey taken notice of the *seventh days*, on which the Jews abstain from all sorts of work on a religious account." - Joseph ben Mattiyahu according to Flavius Josephus
    “Pompey seized the city, it is said, after watching for the *day of fasting*, when the Judaeans were abstaining from all work; he filled up the trench and threw ladders across.” - Strabo
    "Shall we observe the rest of the Sabbath, and bind ourselves in the fetters of Saturn?...[said the Manichaean, to which Augustine replies:] We are not afraid to meet your scoff at the Sabbath, when you call it the fetters of Saturn. It is a silly and unmeaning expression, which occurred to you only because you are in the habit of worshipping the sun on what you call Sunday. The Gentiles, of whom the apostle says that they "worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator," gave the names of their gods to the days of the week. Why do you try to bring in the name of Saturn in connection with the rest of the seventh day enjoined in Scripture, merely because the Gentiles call the day Saturday? The Scripture name for the day is Sabbath, which means rest. Your scoff is as unreasonable as it is profane." - Augustine
  • Testimony regarding Israel in general or Jews specifically, guarding false Sabbaths. Be sure to pay attention to words like "my", "her" and "false" as it pertains to Sabbath in order to learn whose "Sabbath" is being discussed.
    "Ye who are approaching the evil day, who are drawing near and adopting false Sabbaths." - Amos 6:3 (Septuagint)
    "I will also cause all her mirth to cease, her feast days, her new moons, and her sabbaths, and all her solemn feasts." - Hosea 2:11 (KJV)
    “And he hath violently taken away his tabernacle, as if it were of a garden: he hath destroyed his places of the assembly: the LORD hath caused the solemn feasts and sabbaths to be forgotten in Zion, and hath despised in the indignation of his anger the king and the priest.” - Lamentation 2:6 (KJV)
    "And all the children of Israel will forget and will not find the path of the years, and will forget the new moons, and seasons, and sabbaths and they will go wrong as to all the order of the years." - Jubilees 6:34

    "For there will be those who will assuredly make observations of the moon, how (it) disturbs the seasons and comes in from year to year ten days too soon. For this reason, (because of improper lunar observance) the years will come upon them when they will disturb (the order), and make an abominable (day) the day of testimony, and a common day a feast day, and they will confound all the days, the holy with the common, and the common day with the holy; for they will go wrong as to the months and sabbaths and feasts and jubilees. For this reason, I command and testify to thee that thou mayst testify to them; for after thy death thy children will disturb (them), so that they will not make the year three hundred and sixty-four days only, and for this reason they will go wrong as to the new moons and seasons and sabbaths and festivals, and they will eat all kinds of blood with all kinds of flesh." - Jubilees 6:36-38
    "I have undertaken to communicate to thy goodness by this my writing, though possessed with much fear and trembling, most excellent king, the present state of affairs, as the result hath shown. For as I administered this province, my lord, according to the command of thy serenity, which is one of the eastern cities called Jerusalem, wherein the temple of the nation of the Jews is erected, all the multitude of the Jews, being assembled, delivered up to me a certain man called Jesus, bringing many and endless accusations against him; but they could not convict him in anything. But they had one heresy against him, that *he said the sabbath was not their proper rest.*" - Pontius Pilate
    "I have received information, most excellent one, in consequence of which I am seized with fear and trembling. For in this province which I administer, one of whose cities is called Jerusalem, the whole multitude of Jews delivered unto me a certain man called Jesus, and brought many accusations against him, which they were unable to establish by consistent evidence. But they charged him with one heresy in particular, namely, that Jesus said *the Sabbath was not a rest, nor to be observed* by them." - Pontius Pilate
  • This section is for quotations from antiquity *prior* to Israel ever adopting a particular tradition. It is unfortunate that we have to have this section but quite often people within the various brands of Judaism attempt to knowingly bend and twist the historical record. I should say, this is human nature although unseemly.

    If you have evidence you would like to submit, please compile a list of quotes and send them to me. A particular culture's own writings as well as religious testimony are suitable sources.
    Tell Sin-Iddinam Hammurabi sends you the following message: 'This year has an additional month. The coming month should be the second month of Ululu, and wherever the annual tax has been ordered to be brought into Babylon on the 24th of the month of Tashritu, it should now be brought to Babylon on the 24th of the month of Ululu' - Letter from Hammurabi, King of Babylon

    Note: This example of a monthly intercalation, borrowed by Israel, predates Moses by hundreds of years. You will note the glaringly obvious nomenclature plagiarism of Ululu and Tashritu, which later became Elul and Tishri on the Babylonian "Hebrew" Calendar.
    "As regards the adding of the intercalary month, which the king wrote to me, this is indeed an intercalated year. After Jupiter has become visible, I shall write again to the king, my lord. I am waiting for it; it will take the whole month. Then we shall see how it is and when we have to add the intercalary month. Let them intercalate a month; *all the stars of the sky have fallen behind*. Month XII must not pass unfavorably. Let them intercalate." - Balasi (Assyrian astrologer)

    Note: Being wicked (twisted), the Assyrian astrologer blames the stars for having "fallen behind" when it is the improper usage of the lesser luminary (the moon) in declaring the beginning of a year that causes the problem. The moon coming in ten days early juxtaposed to the "sun and stars" is not a problem with the faithful witness of the luminary itself. Instead, the problem rests squarely on the shoulders of unfaithful dreamers loving darkness while speaking evil against the stars that are doing faithful service in their fixed positions.
  • This section is reserved for Judaism's own testimony concerning their Babylonian timekeeping practice. As such, any testimony within the Judaism brand is legitimate. Canonical texts, non-canonical texts, extra-biblical historical texts, apocryphal, pseudepigraphical, etc. are all legitimate candidates for this section. There is an abundant supply of source material in Judaism's writings, including the Mishna and the Gemara (Babylonian Talmud).
    Our Rabbis taught: A year cannot be intercalated unless the Nasi sanctions it. It once happened that Rabban Gamaliel was away obtaining permission from the Governor in Syria and as his return was delayed, the year was intercalated subject to Rabban Gamaliel's later approval. When Rabban Gamaliel returned he gave his approval with the result that the intercalation held good.

    Our Rabbis taught: A year may not be intercalated except where it is necessary either for [the improvement of] roads or for [the repair of] bridges, or for the [drying of the] ovens [required for the roasting] of the paschal lambs, or for the sake of pilgrims from distant lands who have left their homes and could not otherwise reach [Jerusalem] in time. But no intercalation may take place because of [heavy] snows or cold weather or for the sake of Jewish exiles [from a distance] who have not yet set out.

    Our Rabbis taught: The year may not be intercalated on the ground that the kids or the lambs or the doves are too young. But we consider each of these circumstances as an auxiliary reason for intercalation. How so?

    R. Jannai [gave the following example of the law in operation], quoting from R. Simeon b. Gamaliel's [letter to the Communities]: 'We beg to inform you that the doves are still tender and the lambs still young, and the grain has not yet ripened. I have considered the matter and thought it advisable to add thirty days to the year.

    An objection was raised: How long a period was intercalated in the year? Thirty days. R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: A month? — R. Papa Said: [The matter is left to the judgment of the intercalary court:] if they wish, they may add a month; or if they wish thirty days. - Babylonian Talmud: Sanhedrin Folio 11a
    It once happened that Rabban Gamaliel was sitting on a step on the temple hill and the well known scribe Johanan was standing before him while three cut sheets were lying before him. 'Take one sheet', he said, 'and write an epistle to our brethren in Upper Galilee and to those in Lower Galilee, saying: "May your peace be great! We beg to inform you that the time of 'removal' has arrived for setting aside [the tithe] from the olive heaps." Take another sheet, and write to our brethren of the South, "May your peace be great! We beg to inform you that the time of 'removal' has arrived for setting aside the tithe from the corn sheaves."

    And take the third and write to our brethren the exiles in Babylon and to those in Media, and to all the other exiled [sons] of Israel, saying: "May your peace be great for ever! We beg to inform you that the doves are still tender and the lambs still too young and that the crops are not yet ripe. It seems advisable to me and to my colleagues to add thirty days to this year."' [Yet] it is possible [that the modesty shown by Rabban Gamaliel in this case belongs to the period] after he had been deposed [from the office of Nasi].

    Our Rabbis taught: A year may be intercalated on three grounds: on account of the premature state of the corn-crops; or that of the fruit-trees; or on account of the lateness of the Tekufah. Any two of these reasons can justify intercalation, but not one alone. All, however, are glad when the state of the spring-crop is one of them.

    Rabban Simeon b. Gamaliel says: On account of [the lateness of] the Tekufah. The Schoolmen inquired: Did he mean to say that 'on account of the [lateness of the] Tekufah' [being one of the two reasons], they rejoiced, or that the lateness of the Tekufah alone was adequate reason for intercalating the year? The question remains undecided.

    Our Rabbis taught: [The grain and fruit of the following] three regions [are taken as the standard] for deciding upon the declaration of a leap-year: Judea, Trans-Jordania, and Galilee. The requirements of two of these regions might determine the intercalation, but not those of a single one. All, however, were glad when one of the two was Judea, because the barley for the Omer was obtained [by preference] in Judea.

    Our Rabbis taught: The intercalation of a year can be effected [by the Beth din] only in Judea; but if for some reason [it had been decided upon by the Beth din] in Galilee, the decision holds good. Hanania of Oni, however, testified: 'If the intercalation was decided upon in Galilee, it is not valid.'

    R. Judah the son of R. Simeon b. Pazi asked: What is the reason for the view of Hanania of Oni? Scripture states, Unto His habitation shall ye seek and thither thou shalt come: whatever search you have to make shall be only in the habitation of the Lord.

    Our Rabbis taught: A leap-year is to be declared only by day, and if it has been declared by night, the declaration is invalid. The sanctification of a month is to be performed by day, and if it has been performed by night it is not valid. R. Abba says: What passage [proves this]? - Blow the horn at the new moon, at the covering of the moon our feast-day. Now on which feast is the moon covered? We must say on the New Year. And it is thereupon written, For this is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Jacob: Just as judgment is executed by day, so also must the sanctification of the month take place by day.

    Our Rabbis taught: A year is not to be intercalated... - Babylonian Talmud: Sanhedrin Folio 11b (ctd. in Folio 12a)
    ...in years of famine. It has been taught:

    Rabbi says: A man came from Baal Shalisha and brought to the man of God bread of the first fruits; twenty loaves of barley, [bread of the newly ripened crop]. Now, there was no other place in Palestine where the fruit ripened earlier than in Baal Shalisha; yet, according to this account, only one species had ripened there [by that date]. If you suggest that it was wheat, the text reads 'barley'. If again you suggest that it was ripened before the bringing of the Omer, the text reads further: Give unto the people that they may eat, which must have been after the bringing of the Omer. We may conclude therefore that the year should have been intercalated. But why did Elisha not do so? For the reason that it was a year of famine and all hastened to the threshing floor [to procure food].

    Our Rabbis taught: The year may not be intercalated before the New Year, and if it be intercalated, the intercalation is invalid. In case of necessity, however, a year may be intercalated immediately after the New Year; yet even so, only a [second] Adar is added. But is this really so? Was not a message once sent to Raba: 'A couple [of scholars] have arrived from Rakkath who had been captured by an eagle whilst in possession of articles manufactured at Luz, such as purple, yet through divine mercy and their own merits they escaped safely. Further, the offspring of Nahshon wished to establish a Nezib, but yon Edomite would not permit it.

    The Members of the Assembly, however, met and established a Nezib in the month in which Aaron the Priest died'? Yes, the calculations were indeed made, but not published [until after the New Year]. How was it implied that the term Nezib [mentioned in the message] connoted 'month'?

    Because is is written, Now Solomon had twelve officers [Nezibim] over all Israel who provided victuals for the king and his household; each man his month in the year. But is it not written, and one officer [Nezib] that was in the land?

    Rab Judah and R. Nahman, one holds that one single officer was appointed over all [the other officers]: the other is of the opinion that this refers to the [special officer in charge of the provisions during] the intercalated month.

    Our Rabbis taught: We may not, in the current year, intercalate the following year, nor intercalate three years in succession. R. Simeon said: It once happened that R. Akiba, when kept in prison, intercalated three years in succession. The Rabbis, however, retorted: 'Is that your proof? The court sat and intercalated each year at its proper time.'

    Our Rabbis taught: We may not intercalate a Sabbatical year nor the year following a Sabbatical year. But which year was it usual to intercalate? That preceding the Sabbatical year. Those of the House of Rabban Gamaliel, however, used to intercalate the year following the Sabbatical year. And this enters into the dispute of the following Tannaim. For it has been taught: Herbs may not be imported from outside the land [of Israel]. But our Rabbis permitted it.

    Wherein do they differ? R. Jeremiah said: They differ as to whether we apprehend lest the earth attached to them [should also be imported].

    Our Rabbis taught: We may not intercalate a year because of uncleanness. R. Judah said: We may intercalate. R. Judah observed: It once happened that Hezekiah king of Judah declared a leap year because of uncleanness, and then prayed for mercy, for it is written, for the multitude of the people, even many of Ephraim and Manasseh, Issachar and Zebulun had not cleansed themselves... - Babylonian Talmud: Sanhedrin Folio 12a (ctd. in Folio 12b)
    ...yet did they eat the Passover otherwise than it is written, for Hezekiah had prayed for them, saying: May the Lord in His goodness pardon everyone. R. Simeon said: If the intercalation was actually on the ground of uncleanness, it holds good. Why then did Hezekiah implore Divine mercy?

    Because only an Adar can be intercalated and he intercalated a Nisan in Nisan. R. Simeon b. Judah said on behalf of R. Simeon, that it was because he had persuaded Israel to celebrate a Second Passover [unduly]. The Master has said: 'R. Judah said: We may intercalate [on the ground of uncleanness].'

    Hence R. Judah holds that [the law of] uncleanness, in the case of an entire community, is only suspended [and not abrogated]. But has it not been taught: The ziz, whether it is on his [the Priest's] forehead or not, propitiates.

    So said R. Simeon, R. Judah said: Only when it is on his forehead does it propitiate, but not otherwise. R. Simeon thereupon said to him: The case of the High Priest on the Day of Atonement affords proof, seeing that it propitiates even when it is not worn on his forehead.

    And R. Judah answered him: Leave the Day of Atonement aside, for the [laws concerning] impurity are entirely abrogated in the case of a whole Community? But even according to this reasoning, is there not a contradiction within the passage itself?

    [Thus:] R. Judah said: We may intercalate [on account of uncleanness]; and then he himself relates what happened in the case of Hezekiah, king of Judah, who intercalated a year because of uncleanness, but implored Divine mercy on himself [for his action]? But the text is evidently defective, and should read as follows: 'We may not intercalate a year on account of uncleanness, but if it has been intercalated, the decision holds good.

    R. Judah maintained that the intercalation is not valid, and R. Judah observed: It once happened with Hezekiah etc...

    But if so, [when] R. Simeon says: If the year is intercalated for the sake of [avoiding] uncleanness, the decision holds good, is [he not merely repeating] the opinion of the first Tanna? Said Raba: They differ as to whether [it may be intercalated] at the outset.

    It has been taught likewise: A year may not be intercalated at the outset because of uncleanness. R. Simeon said: It may be intercalated. Why then did he [Hezekiah] pray for mercy? Because only an Adar can be intercalated, whereas he intercalated a Nisan in Nisan.

    The Master has said: 'Because only an Adar can be intercalated, whereas he intercalated a Nisan in Nisan.' But did not Hezekiah agree [that the verse], This month shall be unto you the beginning of months,[implies], only this month can be Nisan [once proclaimed], and no other?

    He erred on a ruling of Samuel, for Samuel said: The year is not to be intercalated on the thirtieth day of Adar, since it is eligible to be appointed [the first day of] Nisan. He [Hezekiah] however thought that we do not consider its eligibility [to belong to Nisan]. It has been taught likewise: The year may not be intercalated on the thirtieth day of Adar, since it is eligible to be appointed [the first day] of Nisan.

    [It was stated above:] 'R. Simeon b. R. Judah said on behalf of R. Simeon that it was because he had [wrongfully] persuaded the people to celebrate a Second Passover [that Hezekiah prayed to be forgiven].'

    How did it happen? R. Ashi said: E.g., half of Israel were clean and half unclean, but the women made up the number of the clean and turned it into a majority.

    Now, at first he held that women too are bound [to offer the lamb] on the first [Passover], so that only a minority was unclean; and a minority is relegated to the Second Passover. But later he adopted the view [that the participation of] women in the First [Passover celebration] is only voluntary, so that the unclean were in a majority, and a majority is not relegated to the Second Passover.

    The text [states]: 'Samuel said, The year is not to be intercalated on the thirtieth day of Adar, since it is eligible to be appointed [the first day of] Nisan.' But what if it were intercalated? 'Ulla said: The month must not be sanctified. But what if it were sanctified? Raba said: Then the intercalation is invalid. R Nahman said: Both the intercalation and the sanctification are valid.

    Raba said to R. Nahman: Let us consider! Between Purim and the Passover there are thirty days, and from Purim we begin to lecture on the laws of Passover, as has been taught: People must begin to inquire into the Passover laws thirty days before the Festival.

    R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: A fortnight before. If, then, it [sc. Passover] is postponed at the beginning of the month [of Nisan], people will be liable to disregard the law regarding leaven [on Passover]. He [R. Nahman] answered him: It is well-known that the intercalation of a year depends on [minute] calculations, hence they would say that [the declaration was not made until the thirtieth day] because the Rabbis had not completed their calculation until then.

    Rab Judah said in Samuel's name: A year is not to be intercalated unless the [summer] Tekufah is short of completion by the greater part of the month. And how much is that? Sixteen days: so holds R. Judah. - Babylonian Talmud: Sanhedrin Folio 13a (ctd. in Folio 13b)
    R. Jose said: Twenty-one days. Now, both deduce it from the same verse, and the feast of ingathering at the tekufah [season] of the year. One master holds that the whole Feast [of ingathering] is required to be included [in the new Tishri tekufah; the other, that only a part of the festival [of ingathering] must [be included].

    Now, which view do they adopt? If they hold that the tekufah day is the completion [of the previous season]: then, even if it were not so, it will meet with the requirement neither of him who holds that the whole Festival [must be included,] nor of him who holds that only part of it [is necessary]! One must say therefore that they both hold that the tekufah day begins.

    An objection is raised: The tekufah day concludes [the previous season]: this is R. Judah's view. R. Jose maintains that it commences [the new]. Further has it been taught: A year is not intercalated unless the [summer] tekufah is short of completion by the greater part of the month.

    And how much is that? Sixteen days. R. Judah said: Two thirds of the month. And how much is that? Twenty days.

    R. Jose ruled: It is to be calculated thus: [If there are] sixteen [days short of completing the tekufah] which precedes Passover, the year is to be intercalated. [If, however, there are] sixteen [short of completing the tekufah] which precedes the feast [of tabernacles], the year is not to be intercalated.

    R. Simeon maintained: Even where there are sixteen [days short of completing the tekufah] which precedes the feast [of tabernacles], the year is intercalated. Others say [that the year is intercalated even if the tekufah is short of completion] by the lesser part of the month. And how much is that? Fourteen days? The difficulty remained unsolved. <---- lol (I couldn't resist. - Scot)

    The master has said: 'R. Judah said: Two thirds of the month. And how much is that? Twenty days. R. Jose ruled: It is to be calculated [thus: if there are] sixteen [days short of completing the tekufah] which precedes Passover, the year is to be intercalated.'

    But is not this view identical with R. Judah's? They differ as to whether the tekufah day completes [the previous] or begins [the new cycle]. The master has said: '[R. Jose holds that] if there are sixteen [days short of completing the tekufah] which precedes the feast [of tabernacles], the year is not intercalated.'

    According to R. Jose, then, only if there are sixteen [days short of completing the tekufah] preceding the feast [of tabernacles is intercalation] not [permitted]; but if there are seventeen or eighteen [days short], the year is intercalated.

    But has he not himself said: If there are sixteen [days short of completing the tekufah] which precedes Passover, we may intercalate, but not if less? But no; in neither case may we intercalate. But seeing that he spoke of the number sixteen [with regard to the tekufah] preceding Passover, he gives it also [in connection with the tekufah] preceding the feast [of tabernacles].

    [It was stated above]: 'R. Simeon maintained: Even where there are sixteen [days short of completing the tekufah] which precedes the feast [of tabernacles], the year is intercalated.' But is not this view the same as that of the first Tanna? - Babylonian Talmud: Sanhedrin Folio 13a (ctd. in Folio 13b)
    They differ as to whether the tekufah day completes [the previous season] or begins [the new season]. But their views were not defined.

    'Others say: [That the year is intercalated even where there is a shortage] by the lesser part of the month. And how much is that. Fourteen days.'

    Now, which view do they adopt? Do they hold that the tekufah day completes [the previous season], and that we require the whole feast [of ingathering to be included in the new tekufah?] But surely in our case, it is so. [Why then intercalate?]

    The 'Others', says R. Samuel son of R. Isaac, speak of the Nisan tekufah, for it is written, observe the month of aviv [spring]; i.e., take heed that the beginning of the vernal tekufah shall occur on a day in Nisan when the moon is still in the process of renewal.

    But why not intercalate a day in Adar?

    R. Aha b. Jacob said: The Tanna reckons from higher numbers downward, and says as follows: [If there is a deficiency] as far as [i.e., by more than] the lesser part of the month, the year is intercalated. And how much is that? Fourteen days.'

    Rabina said: In reality, the 'Others' refer to the Tishri Tekufah, but they hold that the whole feast [of ingathering] must fall [in the new tekufah] including also the first [day of the Feast].'[Including] the first day'?

    But is it not written, the feast of ingathering [shall be] at the tekufah of the year; [meaning the day on which ingathering is permitted]? [They interpret it as] 'The Feast which occurs in the season of ingathering.' - Babylonian Talmud: Sanhedrin Folio 13b

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